Francis L. Ludwig
Consulting Professor
Environmental Fluid Mechanics Laboratory
Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering (MC: 4020)
Stanford, CA 94305
email: fludwig@stanford.edu
phone: 650-721-2680

Wind Web page Papers:

Ludwig, F. L. and D. Sinton, 2000; Evaluating an Objective Wind Analysis Technique with a Long Record of Routinely Collected Data, J. Appl. Meteorol., 39, 335-348.

Ludwig, F. L., J. M. Livingston, and R. M. Endlich, 1991: Use of Mass Conservation and Dividing Streamline Concepts for Efficient Objective Analysis of Winds in Complex Terrain, J. Appl. Meteorol., Vol. 30, pp. 1490-1499.

Endlich, R.M., F.L. Ludwig, C.M. Bhumralkar, and M.A. Estoque, 1982:  A Diagnostic Model for Estimating Winds at Potential Sites for Wind Turbines. J. Appl. Meteor., 21, 1441-1454

Ludwig , F.L. and G. Byrd, 1980: An efficient method for deriving mass-consistent flow fields from wind observations in rough terrain, Atmos. Environ., 14, 585-587

Recent Conference papers

Ludwig, F. L., F. K. Chow and R. L. Street, 2008: The need for caution when interpreting velocity field structures predicted by LES, 18th Symp. on Boundary Layers and Turb.,  Boundary Layers and Turb., paper 4.4 paper 11B.3

Ludwig, F. L., F. K. Chow and R. L. Street, 2006:Effects of sub-filter scale turbulence models on vertical velocity structure in neutral boundary-layer flow, 17th Symp. on Boundary Layers and Turb.,  paper 4.4

Drake, J., F. L. Ludwig  and J. Vesecky,  2004: Using high frequency radar observations of the ocean surface and objective analyses of onshore observations to estimate winds over Monterey Bay, California, 13th Conference on Interactions of the Sea and Atmosphere, paper 1.6

Ludwig,  F. L, Y. Chen and  R. L. Street, 2002: Integration of Data from many Sources for Objective Analyses of Three-Dimensional Meteorological Fields in the Salt Lake City Area,  Preprints 4th Symp. on the Urban Environ., paper 12.2

Chen, Y., R. L. Street, and F. L. Ludwig, 2002: Numerical modeling of airflow in the vicinity of the Jordan Narrows in the Salt Lake Valley, 10th Conf. Mountain Meteorol. and MAP Meeting, poster 1.3

Miller, D. K. and F. L. Ludwig,  2001: A Computationally Efficient Method for Obtaining Model Forecast Winds in the Vicinity of Complex Coastal Orography,  Preprints 4th Conf. on Coastal Atmos. and Oceanic Predict., paper 5.6

F. L. Ludwig,  J. F. Vesecky and C. C. Teague, 2000: Integrating multi-frequency HF Doppler radar estimates of wind direction with other meteorological observations to obtain surface wind patterns over coastal ocean areas,  4th Symposium on Integrated Observing Systems,  paper 2.1

Topographical effects

Savov, P. B., T. S. Skakolova, I. N. Kolev and F. L. Ludwig, 2002: Lidar Investigation of the Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Atmospheric Aerosol in Mountain valleys, J. Appl. Meteorol, 41, 528-541.

Ludwig, F. L.,  J. Horel,  C. D. Whiteman, 2004: Using EOF analysis to identify important surface wind patterns in mountain valleys, J. Appl. Meteorol., 43, 969-983

Chen, Y.,  F. L. Ludwig and R. L. Street, 2004: Stably-stratified flows near a notched, transverse ridge across the Salt Lake Valley, J. Appl. Meteorol, 43, 1308-1328.

Archer, C. L. , M. Z. Jacobson, and F. L. Ludwig,  2005: The Santa Cruz Eddy. Part I: observations and statistics, Mon. Wea. Rev. 133, 767-782.

Air quality

Ludwig, F.L. and Elmer Robinson, 1965:  Size Distribution of Sulfur-Containing Compounds in Urban Aerosols, J. Colloid Sci., 20,  571-584.

Ludwig, F.L., L.S. Gasiorek, and R. E. Ruff, 1977:  Simplification of a Gaussian Puff Model for Real-Time Minicomputer Use, Atmos. Environ., 11, 431-436.

Ludwig, F.L., 1978:  Siting Air Monitoring Stations, Environ. Sci. and Tech., Vol. 12, pp. 774-778.

Singh, H.B., W.B. Johnson, and F.L. Ludwig, 1980:  Tropospheric ozone: Concentrations and variabilities in clean remote atmospheres, Atmos. Environ., 12, 2185-2196.

Ludwig, F.L., 1981:  A Model for Simulating the Behavior of Pollutants Emitted at Ground Level Under Time-Varying Meteorological Conditions, Atmos. Environ., 15,   989-999.

Ludwig, F.L., 1982:  Effect of a Change of Atmospheric Stability on the Growth Rate of Puffs Used in Plume Simulation Models, J. Applied Meteorol., 21, 1371-1374.

Ludwig, F.L., R. Salvador and R. Bornstein, 1989:  An Adaptive Volume Plume Model, Atmos. Environ. 23,  127-138.

Ludwig, F. L. J-Y. Jiang and J. Chen, 1995: Classification of ozone and weather patterns associated with high ozone concentrations in the san francisco and monterey bay areas, Atmos. Environ.,  29, , 2915-2928

Urban meteorology

Ludwig, F.L., 1970:  Urban Temperature Fields, World Meteorological Organization, Tech. Note 108, pp. 80-107.

Ludwig, F.L., 1970:  Urban air temperature and its relation to extra-urban meteorological measurements,  ASHRAE J, 12 , 48-

Ludwig, F.L. and W.F. Dabberdt, 1973:  Effects of  Urbanization on Turbulent Diffusion and Mixing Depth, Int. J. Biometeor.,  7,  1-11.

Ludwig, F.L. and W.F. Dabberdt, 1976:  Comparison of Two Practical Atmospheric Stability Classification Schemes in an Urban Application, J. Appl. Meteorol.,  15, 1172-1176.

Seaman, N.L., F.L. Ludwig, E.G. Donnall, T.T. Warner, and C.M. Bhumralkar, 1989:  Numerical Studies of Urban Planetary Boundary Layer Structure Under Realistic Synoptic Conditions,  J. Appl. Meteorol., 28, 760-781.


Robinson, E. and F.L. Ludwig, 1967:  Atmospheric Water Vapor Measurements on the Greenland Ice Cap, Polar Meteorology, Tech. Note 87, World Meteorol. Org. No. 211, TP. 111, pp. 15-27.

Sheih, C.M., and F.L. Ludwig, 1985:  A Comparison of Numerical Pseudodiffusion and Atmospheric Diffusion,  Atmos. Environ., 19,  1065-1068.

Ludwig, F.L., 1989:  Atmospheric FractalsˇA Review,ţ Environ. Software, 4, 9-16.

Ludwig, F.L. and R.L. Street, 1995; Modification of Multiresolution Feature Analysis for Application to Three-Dimensional Atmospheric Wind Fields,  J. Atmos. Sci., 52, 139-157.

Ludwig, F.L., R. L. Street, J. M. Schneider and K. R. Costigan, 1996: Analysis of Small-Scale Patterns of Atmospheric Motion in a Sheared, Convective Boundary Layer, J. Geophys. Res. (Atmospheres), 101D, 9391-9411.

Ludwig,  F. L., D. K. Miller and S. G. Gallaher, 2006: Evaluating a hybrid prognostic/diagnostic model that improves wind forecast resolution in complex coastal topography,   J. Appl. Meteorol. and Climatol., 45, 155-177.